学习词根,与美国小学生学英文第26期Body

作者: 关于教育  发布:2019-09-01

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明日的答案:

  UNIT 06 Body Temperature

  1. c   2. f   3. e   4. h   5. a   6. d   7. b   8. g

Our body temperature is usually 36.5 degrees. When we are sick, our body temperature goes up. Sometimes, a high fever is very dangerous. We have to take medicine to lower it. Body temperature is usually taken at a person’s forehead, ear or in one’s mouth. A high fever means our bodies are fighting against bacteria or a virus。


  Select True or False

HYP/HYPO. 源自希腊(Ελλάδα)前缀,意为"below, under".多数hypo-前缀的单词都为艺术学类。A hypodermic(注射器皮投注射的) needle injects medication under the skin. Hypotension, or low blood pressure, can be just as unhealthy as the better-known hypertension, or high blood pressure.

❶ A high fever isn’t dangerous to human beings at all. (T/F)

hypochondriac. A person overly concerned with his or her own health who often suffers from delusions of physical disease.

❷ Body temperature is usually taken at a person’s forehead. (T/F)

例句:Hercule Poirot, the detective hero of the Agatha Christie mysteries, is a notorious hypochondriac, always trying to protect himself from drafts.

❸ Body temperature is important to people. (T/F)

One disease a hypochondriac really does suffer from is hypochondria(疑病症), the anxiety and depression that come from worrying too much about one's own health. Even though it's easy to joke about hypochondriacs, hypochondria is no joking matter for the sufferer. Somewhat surprisingly, the second part of hypochondria derives from chondros, the Greek word for "cartilage(软骨)." The cartilage in question is that of a sternum, or breastbone. From the ancient times, doctors believed that certain internal organs or regions were the seat of various diseases, both physical and mental, and the area under the breastbone was thought to be the source of hypochondria.

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hypoglycemia. Abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood.

  More to know

例句:She had been controlling her hypoglycemia through diet and vitamins, but she now realized she needed to added daily exercise as well.

high/low

The root glyk- means "sweet" in Greek, so glyc shows up in the names of various terms referring to a sugar as a chemical ingredient, such as glycerine and monoglyceride. People with diabetes have difficulty controlling the sugar in their blood. Too little can be dangerous; its early symptoms may be as minor as nervousness, shaking, and sweating, but it can lead to seizures and unconsciousness. Luckily, it can be taken care of easily by eating or drinking something high in carbohydrates. Its opposite, hyperglycemia, is the main symptom of a diabetes, and usually requires an injection of insulin(胰岛素), which the sufferer usually gives himself. Today many people--though not doctors--use hypoglycemia to mean a completely different condition, with some of the same milder symptoms, that doesn't involve low blood sugar. 

high代表“高的”,而low表示“低的”,二者相互反义词。

hypothermia.(体温过低) Subnormal temperature of the body.

··I have a high fever。

例句:By the time rescuers were able to pull the boy from the pond's icy water, hypothermia had reached a life-threatening stage.

自个儿在发头痛。

Hypothermia, which usually results from submersion(淹没) in icy water or prolonged exposure to cold, may constitute a grave medical emergency. It begins to be a concern when body temperature dips(下降) below 95°F(35°C), and the pulse, breathing, and blood pressure start to decline. Below 90°(32.2°C), the point at which the normal reaction of shivering ceases, emergency treatment is called for.

··The room temperature is low。

hypothetical.(假设的,假言) (1) Involving an assumption made for the sake of argument or for further study or investigation. (2) Imagined for purposes of example.

室内温度低。

例句:The candidate refused to say what she would do if faced with a hypothetical military crisis.

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The noun hypothesis comes straight from the Greek word meaning "foundation" or "base"--that is something "put under" something else. So a hypothesis is something you assume to be true in order that you can use it as the base or basis for a line of reasoning--and any such assumption can be called hypothetical. So, for example, the theory that the dinosaurs became extinct because of a giant meteor that struck the earth near the Yucatan Peninsula involves the hypothesis that such a collision would have had such terrible effects on the earth's climate that the great retiles would have been doomed. Once a hypothesis has been thoroughly studied and researched without being proved wrong, it generally comes to be called a theory instead.

READING COMPREHENSION

THERM/THERMO. 源自希腊共和国词语,意为"warm". A thermometer measures the amount of warmth in a body, the air, or an oven. A thermostat(温度自动调治器) makes sure the temperature stays at the same level. And it's easy to see why the German manufacturers of a vacuum-insulated bottle back in 一九〇三 gave it the name Thermos.

*Read and circle the best answer

thermal.(热的,保暖的) (1) Of, relating to, or caused by heat. (2) Designed to insulate in order to retain body heat.

❶ What is our usual body temperature?

例句:A special weave called thermal weave traps insulating air in little pockets to increase the warmth of long underwear and blankets.

a. 35.6 degrees b. 36.5 degrees c. 40 degrees

In days gone by, much of the male population of the northern states in the cold months would wear a garment of thermal underwear covering the entire body, called a union suits kept sodbusters, cowboys, and townsfolk alike not only warm but also itchy and a little on the smelly side(back when bathing once a week was considered the height of cleanliness). Thermal imaging is photography that captures "heat pictures"--rather than ordinary light pictures--of objects. And thermal pollution occurs when industrial water use ends up warming a river in a damaging way. Small-plane pilots use thermal as a noun for a warm updraft, often over a plowed field or desert, that lifts their wings, just as it enables hawks to soar upward without moving their wings.

❷ What happens if we have a high body temperature?

thermodynamics.(热力学) Physics that deals with the mechanical actions or relations of heat.

a. have a toothache

例句:With his college major in electrical engineering, he assumed it would be an easy step to a graduate-school concentration in thermodynamics.

b. have a fever

Thermodynamics is based on the fact that all forms of energy, including heat and mechanical energy, are basically the same. Thus, it deals with the ways in which one form of energy is converted into another, when one of the forms is heat. The study of thermodynamics dates from before the invention of the first practical steam engine--an engine that uses steam to produce physical power--in the 18th century. Today most of the world's electrical power is actually produced by steam engines, and the principal use of thermodynamics is in power production.

c. have a runny nose

thermonuclear.(热核的,热核军器的) Of or relating to the changes in the nucleus of atoms with low atomic weight, such as hydrogen, that require a very high temperature to begin.

*Complete the sentence with the right answer。

例句:In the 1950s and '60s, anxious American families built thousands of underground "fallout shelters" to protect themselves from the radiation of a thermonuclear blast.

❸ Body temperature is usually taken at a person’s , ear or in one’s mouth。

Nuclear is the adjective for nucleus, the main central part of an atom. The original nuclear explosives, detonated in 一九四四, were so-called fission bombs, since they relied on the fission, or splitting, of the nuclei(主旨) of uranium(铀) atoms. But an even greater source of destructive(毁灭性的) power lay in nuclear fusion(核聚变), the forcing together of atomic nuclei. The light and heat given off by stars such as the sun come from a sustained fusion--or thermonuclear--reaction deep within it. On earth, such thermonuclear reactions were used to develop the hydrogen bomb, a bomb base on a fusion reaction that merged hydrogen atoms to become helium atoms. The thermonuclear era, which began in 1952, produced bombs hundreds of times more powerful than those exploded at the end of World War II. Why the thermo- in thermonuclear? Because great heat is required to trigger the fusion process, and the trigger used is actually a fission bomb.

a. eyes b. wrist c. forehead

British thermal unit. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit(华氏度) at a specified temperature.

❹ A high fever means our bodies are fighting against or a virus。

例句:Wood-stove manufacturers compete with each other in their claims of how many British thermal units of heat output their stoves can produce.

a. bacteria b. mineral c. vitamin

Despite its name, the British thermal unit, or BTU, may be more widely used in North America than in Britain. Air conditioners, furnaces, and stoves are generally rated by BTUs.(Though "BTUs" is often short for "BTUs per hour";in air conditioner ratings, for instance, "BTUs" really means "BTUs of cooling capacity per hour.") Fuels such as natural gas and propane are also compared using BTUs. The BTU first appeared in 1876 and isn't part of the metric system--the metric unit of energy is the much smaller joule--so it isn't much used by scientists, but its practicality keeps it popular for consumer goods and fuels. A better-known heat unit is the calorie; a BTU is equal to about 252 calories. (Since the familiar food calorie is actually a kilocalorie, a BTU equals only about a quarter of a food calorie.)

DESCRIBE THE PICTURE


*Circle the correct sentence。

Quizzes:

❶ The girl is taking her temperature in her mouth。

Choose the closest definition:

❷ The girl is taking her temperature at her forehead。

  1. hypothermia   a. excitability   b. subnormal temperature   c. external temperature   d. warmth

  2. thermodynamics   a. science of motion   b. nuclear science   c. science of explosives   d. science of heat energy

  3. hypoglycemia   a. extreme heat   b. low blood sugar   c. low energy   d. high blood pressure

  4. thermal   a. boiling   b. heat-related   c. scorching   d. cooked

  5. hypothetical   a. typical   b. substandard   c. sympathetic   d. assumed

  6. hypochondriac   a. person with imaginary visions   b. person with heart congestion   c. person with imaginary ailments   d. person with imaginary relatives.

  7. British thermal unit   a. unit of electricity   b. heat unit   c. ocean current unit   d. altitude unit

  8. thermonuclear   a. nuclear reaction requiring high heat   b. chemical reaction requiring a vacuum   c. biological reaction producing bright light   d. nuclear reaction based on distance from the sun.

❸ The girl is taking her temperature at her ear。

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